City Comptroller Scott Stringer released an analysis spotlighting how massive pay disparities between men and women permeate throughout the city’s workforce and deny women equal economic power and security.

The new analysis shows how both gender and race drive wage gaps and reveals for the first time how these gaps persist even for people engaged in the same line of work in New York City. The racial pay gap among women exceeds the gender wage gap between white women and white men in some cases.

The report found that although women comprise nearly half of New York City’s total workforce and contribute almost $100 billion annually in earnings to the economy, they are paid as little as half of the average earnings of white men among the highest-paying occupations—with women of color making as little as 39 cents on every dollar paid to a white man.

Although the gender wage gap narrows in some professions in which women have historically been overrepresented, racial wage gaps among women exceed the average gender pay gap twofold, underscoring the need for a racial lens to be applied to all efforts to achieve gender equity.