Dorothy Pitman Hughes is pictured in her St. Johns, Fla., home on Sept. 24, 2013, with a poster using a 1970s image of herself and Gloria Steinem. Hughes, a pioneering Black feminist, child welfare advocate and activist who formed a powerful speaking partnership with Steinem and appeared with her in one of the most iconic photos of the feminist movement, has died. Hughes died Dec. 1, 2022, in Tampa, Fla. She was 84. (Bob Self/The Florida Times-Union via AP)

There was much more to Dorothy Pitman Hughes than the iconic fist to the air pose with Gloria Steinem, much more to her than all the various enterprises she touched with her passion and ingenuity. Rather than composing a fresh look at her legacy in an obit—she joined the ancestors on Dec. 1 in Tampa, Florida—we can edit several articles about her that appeared in our paper. 

Back in May we reflected on her productive life as we covered the convergence of Roe v. Wade and Mother’s Day, and Dorothy’s commitment to women’s rights and the feminist movement.  At that time we began: “Dorothy was born in 1938 in Lumpkin, Georgia, but she spent some very productive time and leadership in Harlem. She was 10 years old when her father was beaten and left for dead on the family’s doorstep. To the family and local officials it was a vicious hate crime, and probably the cowardly work of the Ku Klux Klan.

“It was this brutal and disturbing experience that set Dorothy on a life of activism and to improve the social and political possibilities of the oppressed, particularly African Americans and their plights.

“In 1957, she moved to New York City and began working as a domestic worker, sales lady and a vocalist, all the while raising money for civil rights protesters in need of bail money. By the late ’70s, with three children, she began organizing a multiracial cooperative day care center, called the West 80th Community Childcare Center, an endeavor later profiled in New York Magazine by columnist Gloria Steinem.

“This would begin a lifelong friendship with Steinem, in which Dorothy would play a vital role in getting Steinem to take her message of women’s rights to the streets. To ensure the advice she extended to Steinem, Dorothy agreed to travel with her on speaking engagements, in fact, often sharing the podium with her. For their next venture, and once more at the urging of Dorothy, Steinem founded Ms. Magazine, where the photo with them with their balled up fists raised high gained public traction and was circulated in the media. That iconic photo was originally taken by Dan Wynn for Esquire magazine and it symbolized racial solidarity, even as Dorothy expressed some concern about the possible violence they might incur with such a picture of resistance. Later, another photographer Dan Bagan would create, at Dorothy’s insistence, an homage portrait of the two friends at an event celebrating Steinem’s 80th birthday in 2014.

“Meanwhile, Dorothy continued her community service with the organization of the first shelter for battered women in the city and at the same time co-founded the New York City Agency for Child Development. ‘Too many women were being forced to leave their children home alone while they worked to feed their families,’ she announced upon founding the agency. Together with Steinem, she co-founded the Women’s Action Alliance with the specific mission to promote non-sexist, multiracial children’s education. With this in place the duo continued to tour the nation with their several messages of equality and women’s rights.

“Dorothy was among the signers of the Ms. Campaign ‘We Have Had Abortions,’ a year before Roe v. Wade became law, citing an end to the ‘archaic laws’ that limited reproductive rights for women. This interest was delivered widely at various forums and into classrooms at City College, the College of New Rochelle, and Columbia University.

“In 1992, she co-founded the Charles Junction Historic Preservation Society in Jacksonville, Fla. where she continued her war against poverty by developing community gardening and food production. Her entrepreneurial dream was realized with the launching of the first African American owned office supply store in Harlem, and thereby becoming a member of the Stationers Association of New York. Her store, Harlem Copy, was opened in 1983 on 125th Street. Five years later she began offering HOS stock at $1 a share to individuals, corporations, partnerships and nonprofit organizations focused on African American children.

“Her various ventures were later published in “Wake Up and Smell the Dollars” (2000) that advocated small business ownership to other African Americans, all in the interest of self-determination and self-reliance. This pursuit morphed perfectly into Congressman Rangel’s Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone, funded by the Clinton administration that set aside $300 million for economic development in Harlem. Eventually, she was a member of the Business Resource and Investment Service Center (BRISC) that aimed to support the small businesses in the community. But she was dismayed and criticized the project when too many large corporations arrived and defeated the program. ‘Some are convinced that empowering large corporations to provide low paying jobs for our residents will bring economic empowerment to the community…[But] without African American ownership, there is ultimately no local empowerment,’ she complained, believing BRISC’s resources were being unevenly distributed among small businesses in Harlem. Subsequently she wrote, ‘Just Saying…It Looks Like Ethnic Cleansing (The Gentrification of Harlem)’ that provided advice to African American business owners who might want to utilize similar government programs such as President Obama’s Jobs Act.

“In 2008, Dorothy and Steinem were once again united at Eckerd College where they recreated their famous fist to the air pose. On several occasions Steinem has been a visitor and speaker at Dorothy’s center in Jacksonville, where she has lived since leaving Harlem.”According to a website, Dorothy is survived by three daughters—Delethia Malmsten, Patrice Quinn and Angela Hughes; two grandsons, Sean Ridley and Devin Baptiste; and predeceased siblings, Ayre-Lou Owens, Mary Cunningham and Milton “Roger” Ridley. Among her surviving siblings are Julia Van Mater, Tommy Lee “Tom-Tom” Cherry, Mildred Dent, Alice “Tan” Ridley and James D. “Jimmy” Ridley. More information regarding funeral services can be found at

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